September 26, 2014 at the Stephen M. Ross School of Business
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
Greetings from Ann Arbor! The 6th annual Indian Business Conference will be held at the Ross School of Business on Friday, September 26, 2014.
The Indian Business Conference is a platform that shares insights about India from a broad range of business leaders, renowned academics, policy makers, authors, humanitarians and others who together portray a vast and unique story about India’s challenges and opportunities. India’s impact on the world can be felt in all industries and by all people, even those that do not deal directly with Indian organizations.
Hearing speakers with such diverse backgrounds and experiences is valuable for not only attendees who have substantial familiarity with India’s culture and business environment, but also those who have no prior experience or connection to India. The conference aims to foster meaningful discussion about the global economy, in addition to providing tools and strategies to address future challenges. Ross is home to extraordinary research and programs focused on India and other emerging market nations. Ross’s focus on the Indian market started with the late professor CK Prahalad’s extensive research on the Indian business environment. The India Business Conference and India Initiatives Center at Ross continue the strong relationship between the University of Michigan and India.
Last year’s theme was “Dream. Lead. Inspire.” and was based on the entrepreneurial landscape developing in India and its impact on the broader political, economic and social institutions. Through panel discussions and enlightening speeches from speakers such as Ford COO Mark Fields, Miss America 2014 Nina Davuluri, venture capitalists Gururaj Deshpande and Prasad Potluri, author and journalist Tulika Mehrotra, and several others, attendees benefited with new knowledge applicable to their careers and personal growth.
The new theme and speakers will be listed soon!
Today, India is undergoing a metamorphosis. While it is experiencing tremendous growth, there remain opportunities to explore and issues to be improved. Fortunately, we see more and more youth taking the initiative to dream of a better tomorrow. They are taking the reins of leadership from the visionaries of today and successfully proving to be the leaders of tomorrow. The increasing number of young Indian leaders is inspiring many more to help steer the nation to a prosperous, happier and brighter future. Today India needs this young generation to step up and help transform potential into performance, projections into results and hopes into reality.
To honor the visionaries of today and to celebrate the young leaders of tomorrow, the theme of the 5th India Business Conference is “DREAM. LEAD. INSPIRE.” IBC is a platform for those who have been a part of the transformation and beyond to inspire the youth of India to lead the country in building the India of our dreams.
Join us in a day of engaging panel discussions, inspiring and thought provoking speakers and have the unique opportunity of networking with distinguished professionals, policy makers, academia and students all passionate about the India's shining future.
India Business Conference is a platform that brings together the student community, business leaders, University faculty, policy makers and renowned management thinkers to engage in a thought provoking discussion about various aspects of India and its relationship with the United States as well as with the global economy. Over the years, IBC has developed into a forum that not only provides hundreds of students from various nationalities and leaders from different streams with answers about the challenges facing India, the United States and the world, but also creates meaningful discussion on the tools and strategies to address them.
Ross’s focus on the Indian market started with the late professor CK Prahalad’s extensive research on the Indian business environment. As a member of the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) and a mentor to many prominent Indian business leaders, Professor Prahalad assisted several Indian organizations in successfully making the transition from a closed to open market economy in 1991. Although initially hesitant at the thought of facing foreign competition, many of these firms continue to prosper today as strong players in the global market, and of late, have made the leap to develop into true multinational organizations.
IBC at Ross was envisioned around the same time by Professor M.S. Krishnan and Mr. Ritesh Bawri (MBA 2001) with the hope that the University of Michigan, a world-renowned academic institution could function as a bridge between businesses and the fast globalizing Indian markets. The vision was converted into a reality in the year 2009 when with the support of late Professor CK Prahalad and Professor Krishnan, the first IBC was held at Ross, receiving wide media coverage and fanfare.
Over the years, the conference continues to provide an excellent platform to
Now in its fifth year, India Business Conference has continued to grow at a rapid pace, boasting an impressive line of speakers, as well as notable connections with domestic and international organizations. Additionally, the conference been supported by several partners such as Confederation of Indian Industries, the US Indian Business Council, MIIndia, TiE and the William Davidson Institute.
In its 5th year, the theme "Dream. Lead. Inspire." focused on the economic, social, technological, and political changes India was undergoing. Eminent speakers from diverse fields such as business, politics, entertainment, and education graced IBC with their presence and shared their knowledge.
The conference featured notable speakers including,
In its 4th year, the theme "Inside the Transformation" focused on the economic, social, technological, and political change India was undergoing, and fostered discussions to find answers about how leaders in various arenas anticipate, manage and benefit from transformation.
The conference featured notable speakers including,
IBC 2012 provided a forum for leaders in business, politics and academia to engage in spirited debate with each other, students and the media about the many changes that have impacted India, both domestically and internationally. The year’s theme, “Dissolving the Boundaries”, was an exploratory dialogue on India’s rapid ascent as both a socio-political and economic force in the international arena.
Some of the keynote speakers included -
The second India Business Conference provided a platform to debate the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead as India surged forward to achieve the “India@75 vision”. As a dedication to CK Prahalad, the conference also featured a round table to discuss the continuing relevance of his vision.
Some of the keynote speakers included -
In its inaugural edition, the India Business Conference, focused on the theme "One Billion and Counting" focused on the emerging opportunities and existing challenges for corporations doing business in India. India's burgeoning middle class and the seismic wave of income growth offer exciting prospects for companies looking for top line growth.
The key speakers of the Conference included -
We are privileged to have eminent speakers from diverse fields such as business, politics, entertainment, and education to grace IBC with their presence and share their knowledge. Last year, we proudly hosted these distinguished individuals at IBC 2013.
Friday, November 1, 2013
|8:30 am - 9:15 am||Registration and Breakfast|
|9:15 am - 9:20 am||Opening Remarks: Conference Co-Chairs|
|9:20 am - 9:25 am||Welcome Speech: Dean Alison Davis-Blake|
|9:30 am - 10:30 am||CONFERENCE KEYNOTE
"Doing Business in India: Turning Challenges Into Opportunities"
Mark Fields (COO, Ford Motor Company)
|10:30 am - 11:30 am||WOMEN'S PANEL
"Women in the Driver’s Seat: Changing Attitudes"
Aparna Reddy (Board Member, GVK EMRI and Founder, Aparna Reddy Foundation)
Tulika Mehrotra (Author and Journalist)
Mamatha Chamarthi (CIO, Consumers Energy)
Moderator: Prof. Linda Lim [bio]
|11:30 am - 12:00 pm||"A2 is Growing: How Ann Arbor is Attracting Diverse People and Foreign
Ann Arbor Mayor John Hieftje, Bill Mayer (Ann Arbor Spark)
|12:00 pm - 1:00 pm||Lunch|
|1:00 pm - 1:45 pm||"Emerging Markets, Social Trends and US-India Opportunities"
Tarun Khanna (Jorge Paulo Lemann Professor - Harvard Business School & Director, South Asia Institute - Harvard University)
Moderator: Prof. Gautam Ahuja [bio]
|1:45 pm - 2:30 pm||"Beyond Business"
Sanjay Reddy (Vice Chairman, GVK Group)
|2:30 pm - 3:15 pm||"New Frontiers in Diversity: Breaking Stereotypes"
Nina Davuluri (Miss America 2014)
Moderator: Chris White [bio]
|3:15 pm - 3:45 pm||"Impact of Indian Cinema on the changing economy"
Bharathan Kandaswami (Executive Director, Kavithalayaa Productions),
Moderator: Prof. M.S.Krishnan [bio]
|3:45 pm - 4:00 pm||Break|
|4:00 pm - 4:45 pm||"Realizing Dreams: The Journey From Serial Entrepreneurship to Building Social
Desh Deshpande (Chairman, Sycamore Networks)
Moderator: Prof. David Brophy [bio]
|4:45 pm - 5:30 pm||Featured Speaker: Raj Vattikuti (President, Vattikuti Ventures)|
|5:30 pm - 5:45 pm||Closing Remarks & Prize distribution of C.K. Prahalad Case Competition winners and Raffle
|5:45 pm - 7:00 pm||Networking & Reception|
The C.K. Prahalad Case Competition gives students the opportunity to compete and showcase their business knowledge and innovation acumen by analyzing a case study in the Social Impact field. The competition honors the legacy of the late C.K. Prahalad and his vision of how innovation can balance the relationship between profit generation and social value creation for the base of the pyramid.
This competition is open to all graduate business schools, international and domestic.
Five teams will be invited to compete in the final round in Ann Arbor, MI. Final presentations will be delivered to a panel of judges and 2014 UM India Business Conference attendees, speakers, and other participants.
First Place: $2000
Second Place: $1000
All finalists will receive a copy of C.K. Prahalad's critically acclaimed book, "The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid."
The case competition is part of the annual U-M India Business Conference. Last year's conference featured keynotes by several notable speakers, including entrepreneur and philanthropist, Mr. Gururaj Deshpande, Mr. Mark Fields, COO of Ford, and Professor Tarun Khanna from Harvard Business School. The winners of the case competition were announced at the conference. All finalists received free entry to the conference.
Details to follow soon....
India Business Conference 2014 will be held at:
Stephen M. Ross School of Business
701 Tappan St
Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Nearest Airport: Detroit(DTW)
Nearest Amtrak Station: Ann Arbor
Nearest Parking: Forest Avenue Parking Structure located at 650 S. Forest Avenue, Ann Arbor
The registration for 5th Annual IBC ’13 will open soon.
Sign up to stay updated about upcoming news, events and registration information.
Dr. M. S. Krishnan
Dr. M. S. Krishnan (“Krishnan”) is the Accenture Professor of Computer Information Systems and Professor of Technology and Operations at the Ross School of Business, University of Michigan. He is also the Faculty Director for India Initiatives at the Ross School of Business. He has co-authored the book “The New Age of Innovation: Driving Co-Created Value with Global Networks” with Professor C. K. Prahalad (late). The Economist and BusinessWeek magazine named this book as one of the Best Books on Innovation in 2008. Dr. Krishnan received his degrees in Mathematics and Computer Applications from the University of Delhi, India and Ph.D. in Information Systems from Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA. He was awarded the ICIS Best Dissertation Prize for his Doctoral Thesis on “Cost and Quality Considerations in Software Product Management”. His research interest includes Business Innovation, Corporate IT Strategy, Business Value of IT investments, Metrics and Measures for Business Process and Software Quality, Productivity and Customer satisfaction.
Prof. M.S. Krishnan
Ritesh is the founder of Quantta Analytics, based out of India. He is currently the President of the University of Michigan Indian Alumni Association (www.umiaa.in). Ritesh was the founder and Managing Director of Calcom Cement in East India till December 2012. Previous to this, he was the founder of Cijen Inc. an analytics company based out of California. He is the co-founder of Think India Research, a think tank that focuses on policy issues that concern India. He has served on the Board of Entrepreneurs Organization Kolkata for the last few years. He is a Past President of the Rotary Club of Kolkata Metropolitan East. Ritesh is also on the steering committee of India Business Conference, an India focused conference organized by the University of Michigan. He holds an MBA from the University of Michigan, USA, and a Bachelors degree in Economics, from St. Xavier's College, Mumbai.
Gayatri Penmetsa is the India Initiatives Program Manager since 2012. Prior to that, she was the Director of Prospect Research and Management at the Eastern Michigan Foundation. She is responsible for developing strategic direction and providing administrative management of the India Initiatives.
Suneil Bhambri Co-Chair
Suneil Bhambri is currently a second year MBA student. After graduating college, Suneil completed three month internship in New Delhi with Maitri India, a nonprofit organization. The internship developed his passion for base of the pyramid theory and opportunities to learn more about emerging markets. While at the Ross School of Business, Suneil is participating in clubs to further explore this interest through participation in emerging markets clubs and courses. Outside of school, Suneil enjoys playing the guitar, watching sports, and going to concerts (especially those of Indian musicians). Shipra is honored to be a part of this committee and is looking forward to welcome you to the 2014 Indian Business Conference.
Harinee Sampath is an evening MBA, set to graduate in the coming year. She have lived in the US for almost 15 years and brings with her a variety of experiences in technology and consulting. As a vice-chair, her responsibilities for the conference are to manage the fundraising process and hold the co-chairs of the conference accountable. She lives with her husband and almost two year old son in Novi, Michigan, and in her spare time loves hiking and watching old episodes of star trek. She decompresses by singing Indian classical music.
Erica Rose is a dual degree student at the Ross School of Business and the School of Public Health. She is focusing on global health and recently completed a two-month internship at the Aravind Eye Care System in Madurai, India, where she focused on an in-depth cost analysis of Aravind's vision centers. Prior to graduate school, she worked for the University of Michigan Athletic Department's fundraising team. She completed her undergraduate degree at Northwestern University with a major in psychology.
Swetha Salunke has worked with Accenture for the past five years as an IT Consultant. Her interests include playing basketball, swimming, painting and acting. She loves animals and is an passionate about defending their rights. As an undergraduate student, Swetha worked as a master of ceremonies and captained her state in a national basketball tournament. She loves working in teams and is looking forward to getting to know the exceptional individuals at Ross and making the most of this experience.
Ankitha is a sophomore BBA student studying in the Ross School of Business. Her passion for India and business arrived from both learning about and experiencing the economic climate of India first hand. She hopes to pursue her academic interest in finance and international business. Outside of academics, she likes to play tennis, skydive and cook. She is excited for help put together and welcome you to the 2014 Indian Business Conference.
Mark Fields is chief operating officer, Ford Motor Company, effective Dec. 1, 2012. In this role, Fields is responsible for all business operations.
Formerly, Fields served as executive vice president, Ford Motor Company, and president, The Americas, a position to which he was named in October 2005. He led the development, manufacturing, marketing and sales of Ford and Lincoln vehicles in the United States, Canada, Mexico and South America, and was responsible for the transformation of the company’s North American operations and its record profitability.
Previously, Fields served as executive vice president, Ford of Europe and Premier Automotive Group (PAG), where he led all activities for Ford’s premium vehicle business group, and for Ford-brand vehicles manufactured and sold in European countries. Prior to that, Fields was chairman and chief executive officer of Premier Automotive Group.
Fields joined Ford Motor Company in July 1989. From 2000-2002, he was President and CEO of Mazda Motor Company, leading the company through a period of significant transformation. He previously held a number of positions in both South and North America, including Managing Director of Ford Argentina.
|Hometown:||Syracuse, New York|
|Education:|| St. Joseph High School
University of Michigan
|National Platform Issue:||Miss America 2014 Nina Davuluri is the National Goodwill Ambassador for Children’s Miracle Network Hospitals|
|Personal Platform Issue:||Celebrating Diversity through Cultural Competency|
|Talent:||Classical Bollywood Fusion|
|Scholastic Ambition:||To attend medical school|
|Scholastic Honors:||Dean's List; Michigan Merit Award; National Honor Society|
|Career Ambition:||To become a physician|
Gururaj "Desh" Deshpande is the President and Chairman of Sparta Group LLC, a family investment office.
Dr. Deshpande has pursued an entrepreneurial career for the last three decades. He is involved in several companies either as the founder, a founding investor and chairman of several companies including Cascade Communications, Sycamore Networks, Coral Networks, Tejas Networks, Cimaron, Webdialogs, Airvana, Sandstone Capital, A123 Systems and Curata.
Dr. Deshpande lives in Boston and serves as a life-member of the MIT Corporation, and his generous donations have made possible MIT's Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation. Leveraging the experience gained at the MIT Center, Deshpande Foundation has set up three other centers; Deshpande Center for Social Entrepreneurship in India, Merrimack Valley Social Entrepreneurship Sandbox in Lowell/Lawrence Massachusetts and Pond-Deshpande Center at the University of New Brunswick in Canada.
Dr. Deshpande holds a B. Tech. in Electrical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, an M.E. from the University of New Brunswick in Canada, and Ph.D from Queens University in Canada. Deshpande co-chairs a National Council to support President Obama's innovation and entrepreneurship strategy.
John Hieftje is currently the Mayor of Ann Arbor, and has served on the DDA Board for four years. He as been a very active community leader, serving on the boards of numerous area organizations, including the Ann Arbor Summer Festival, Michigan Theater, Huron River Watershed Council, and Lake Superior Conservancy and Watershed Council. He is the Co-Chair of the Washtenaw Metro Alliance, and has served as Chair of Recycle Ann Arbor and of Urban Core Mayors of Michigan. In addition, he is a member of the Sierra Club, the Ecology Center Center of Ann Arbor, and the National Wildlife Federation (Great Lakes Office). Through these activities, he has demonstrated a strong commitment to improving the local environment, and has won several awards, including Local Elected Official of the Year Award from the Michigan Recreation and Parks Association; the Conservation Leadership Award from the Greater Detroit Audubon Society; the Conservation Award from the Huron Valley Group of Sierra Club; and the Preservationist of the Year Award from Washtenaw Land Trust.
Bill Mayer has founded and exited multiple start-ups in the technology and finance sectors. His areas of expertise are in finance, securities and quantitative analysis. He has founded and worked with numerous businesses covering a broad range of industry sectors ranging from start-up ventures through Fortune 500 companies.
Client engagements have covered a broad range of services including market strategy, portfolio structure and the IPO process. Bill has managed over $125 million in client assets.
Areas of specialty are financial modeling, pricing strategies, the process of private and public equity securitization, management of business assets and fundraising. He has extensive experience in creating financial models, business valuations, capitalization tables, as well as navigating advanced business tax issues and the complex issues surrounding securitization. This allows Bill to effectively position clients from an investor’s viewpoint in order to maximize a venture’s ability to receive funding.
Bill has held multiple securities broker licenses for over ten years. This positions him to facilitate the placement of capital directly.
Bill holds a Bachelors of Business Administration from the University of Michigan.
Tarun Khanna is the Jorge Paulo Lemann Professor at the Harvard Business School, where he has studied and worked with multinational and indigenous companies and investors in emerging markets worldwide. He was named Harvard University's Director of the South Asia Institute in the fall of 2010. He joined the HBS faculty in 1993, after obtaining an engineering degree from Princeton University (1988) and a Ph.D. from Harvard (1993), and an interim stint on Wall Street. During this time, he has served as the head of several courses on strategy, corporate governance, and international business targeted to MBA students and senior executives at Harvard. He currently teaches in Harvard’s College's General Education core curriculum in a university wide elective course on entrepreneurship in South Asia. He is also the Faculty Chair for HBS activities in India.
Chicago-based journalist Tulika Mehrotra is the author of bestselling novel, Delhi Stopover. She is also a contributing writer for Vogue, Elle, Men's Health, Harpers Bazaar, India Today and others. Her second book, Crashing B-Town has just released by Penguin.
Tulika received her Bachelors in finance from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and her Masters in Art from the European Institute of Design in Milan, Italy. Following a short stint studying French in Paris, Tulika entered Manhattan’s fashion industry. Intrigued by entertainment’s ability to dictate trends, she soon sought creative outlet in media. Leaving New York behind for Los Angeles, she delved into the evolving media industry with a focus on India.
Tulika has been featured in Vogue, India Today, Businessworld, Hindustan Times, NDTV, Zee, Asian Age, and Doordarshan among others. She was most recently on the cover of Storizen Magazine and has been profiled in both, Elle Magazine and Huffington Post’s – Coolage for her literary work.
Tulika is currently based in Chicago. She is working on her third book, unrelated to Delhi Stopover and Crashing B-Town. She continues to write for various international magazines. For more information, please visit www.tulikam.com.
Aparna Reddy, is the Promoter and Director of GVK Group.
She was the Chairperson of FICCI FLO (Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industry) Hyderabad Chapter for 2011-2012. The Hyderabad Chapter of FLO was launched in 2001 and today has over 300 members. It started 20 years ago, when five women came together to create a platform that voiced the concerns of women entrepreneurs, businesswomen and women professionals. The vision was to empower women and promote entrepreneurship and professional excellence among them.
Aparna is an active member of the Young Indians of Confederation of Indian Industry. Under her stewardship as the Education Chairperson, Hyderabad was rated the best region for the initiatives taken to support education projects. She was the chairperson of the Hyderabad 10K Run Foundation, which conceptualized and organizes the Hyderabad 10K Run, Half Marathon & Full Marathon while also promoting healthy living and a sense of well being. She is also associated with the Young Presidents Organization (YPO).
Aparna is a commerce graduate with avid interest in community & social activities and has supported various social causes on a regular basis. She has been actively involved in the “Save a Child” Campaign, and has also been associated with NGOs like CRY and Help Age India to name a few. While she supports the cause of old age by working with various old age homes, she is very keen on setting up her own one day.
Mamatha Chamarthi serves as the Vice President and Chief Information Officer for CMS Energy and its principal subsidiary, Consumers Energy. Chamarthi oversees the company’s information technology systems and is responsible for engaging with other executives of CMS Energy to promote innovative technology practices.
Chamarthi’s career spans over 18 years, and is viewed as a thought leader in the implementation of new technologies, systems and processes.
Chamarthi holds a Master’s degree in Business Administration from North- western University’s Kellogg School of Management. She also holds Master’s degrees in Computer Science and Software Engineering and English Literature.
Chamarthi serves on the boards of the Michigan Council of Women in Technol- ogy (MCWT) and Midwest Technology Leaders. She is a member of the Wall Street Journal Executive Taskforce for Women in the Economy and also serves as an advisory board member and mentor for the “Elevate - We Build Character” Mentoring Program for IT professionals.
In 2005, Chamarthi was recognized as a “Technology All Star” by the Women of Color in Technology Institute. In 2012, Chamarthi was selected as one of Computerworld’s 2012 Premier 100 IT leaders and appointed to serve on the Michigan Asian Pacific American Affairs Commission by Governor R. Snyder.
Mr. G V Sanjay Reddy, as Vice Chairman of GVK Power and Infrastructure Limited, leads GVK’s businesses in key areas of infrastructure such as energy, resources, airports and transportation that are vital for India to fulfill its tremendous potential and for its economic development. Sanjay is Ex-Chairman of CII, Southern Region for 2012-13, active member of Young Presidents’ Organization (YPO),and sits on the prestigious Jagdish and Kamla Mittal Museum of Indian Art board. He was also declared as the "Emerging Business Leader of the Year" by AIMA Managing India Awards, in 2011 and was chosen among the 25 Indians chosen as Young Global Leaders 2007 by the World Economic Forum.
An alumnus of Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad (IIMA), Bharathan began his career with Ashok Leyland Ltd. in Chennai as Senior Executive. Post Ashok Leyland, Bharathan joined Kavithalayaa serving the company in various leadership roles for the past 18 years. He was Executive Producer of Award winning films such as Roja, Annamalai, Muthu and many others. Bharathan's in-depth knowledge and understanding of the entertainment industry has led to him being a sought after advisor. He was Business Advisor to US-based Silicon Image Inc. engaged in the design and development of High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) technology for multimedia content. He also served as an Advisor to Multimedia Development Corporation - a Government of Malaysia undertaking. Bharathan is a Visiting faculty at IIM-Ahmedabad and played a key role in designing India's first management course on film industry for the institute. He is currently on the Governing Council of Indo-Japan Chamber of Commerce & Industry and a regular speaker at the events of CII (Confederation of Indian Industry), Indo-American Chamber of Commerce and Indo-Japan Chamber of Commerce & Industry, on topics related to the entertainment sector.
Raj Vattikuti is an Entrepreneur and Philanthropist. His lifelong accomplishments are his wonderful family, wife Padma, son Abhinav, daughter Tanvi, the establishment of Covansys Inc. in 1985, which was listed on NASDAQ in 1997, the creation of the Vattikuti Foundation. Raj received the Lifetime Achievement Award for contributions to the information technology industry from Dykema Gossett in May 2001 followed by many awards for community participation and for advancement in industry including prestigious Woodrow Wilson Award for Corporate Citizenship, received in 2007.
In 1997 the Vattikuti Foundation was created by Raj and his wife, Padma, to support cancer research and treatment programs at Henry Ford Hospitals (Vattikuti Urology Institute) and Beaumont Hospitals (Vattikuti Digital Breast Imagining Centre), both located in Michigan. Achieving these accomplishments has given him the opportunity to concentrate on the Vattikuti Foundation and the Vattikuti group of companies. Chairman of Vattikuti Ventures, Raj Vattikuti is investing in global technology companies. With these companies he shares his knowledge and provides strategy and growth aspects to increase their success in the business world. Through the Vattikuti Foundation Raj and his wife Padma have continued to lend their support to number of worthwhile charitable causes. The Vattikuti Foundation is committed to the charitable advancement of multidisciplinary robotic surgery, poverty alleviation and development programs in rural India.